PUBLICACIONES
Tropical fish community does not recover 45 years after predator introduction. Sharpe DMT, De León LF, Gozález R, Torchin ME. Ecology (In Press - 2016)
Abstract Predation is considered an important factor structuring natural communities. However, it is often difficult to determine how it may influence long-term, broad-scale diversity patterns, particularly in diverse tropical systems. Biological introductions can provide powerful insight to test the sustained consequences of predation in natural communities, if pre-introduction data are available. Half a century ago, Zaret and Paine (1973) demonstrated strong and immediate community-level effects following the introduction of a novel apex predator (peacock bass, Cichla monoculus) into Lake Gatun, Panama. To test for long-term changes associated with this predator introduction, we followed up on their classic study by replicating historical sampling methods and examining changes in the littoral fish community at two sites in Lake Gatun 45 years post-introduction. To broaden our inference, we complemented this temporal comparison with a spatial analysis, wherein we compared the fish communities from two lakes with and one lake without peacock bass. Comparisons with historical data revealed that the peacock bass remains the most abundant predator in Lake Gatun. Furthermore, the collapse of the littoral prey community observed immediately following the invasion has been sustained over the past 45 years. The mean abundance of native littoral fish is now 96% lower than it was prior to the introduction. Diversity (rarefied species richness) declined by 64% post-introduction, and some native species appear to have been locally extirpated. We observed a similar pattern across invaded and uninvaded lakes: the mean abundance of native fishes was 5 – 40 times lower in lakes with (Gatun, Alajuela) relative to the lake without peacock bass (Bayano). In particular, small-bodied native fishes (Characidae, Peociliidae) which are common prey of the peacock bass, were more than two orders of magnitude (307 times) less abundant in Gatun and one order of magnitude (28 times) less abundant in Alajuela than in Bayano. However, total native fish diversity did not differ significantly across lakes, suggesting that while many native species have declined in abundance, few have been completely extirpated. Introduced predators can have strong effects on community structure and functional diversity, even in highly-diverse tropical communities, and these effects can persist over multiple decades.
Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Nicholas Kassebaum, Amador Goodridge, Christopher Murray and GBD 2015 Maternal Mortality Collaborators.
Lancet. 2016 Oct 8;388(10053):1775-1812.
Abstract BACKGROUND: In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015.
METHODS: We estimated maternal mortality at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2015 for ages 10-54 years by systematically compiling and processing all available data sources from 186 of 195 countries and territories, 11 of which were analysed at the subnational level. We quantified eight underlying causes of maternal death and four timing categories, improving estimation methods since GBD 2013 for adult all-cause mortality, HIV-related maternal mortality, and late maternal death. Secondary analyses then allowed systematic examination of drivers of trends, including the relation between maternal mortality and coverage of specific reproductive health-care services as well as assessment of observed versus expected maternal mortality as a function of Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility.
FINDINGS: Only ten countries achieved MDG 5, but 122 of 195 countries have already met SDG 3.1. Geographical disparities widened between 1990 and 2015 and, in 2015, 24 countries still had a maternal mortality ratio greater than 400. The proportion of all maternal deaths occurring in the bottom two SDI quintiles, where haemorrhage is the dominant cause of maternal death, increased from roughly 68% in 1990 to more than 80% in 2015. The middle SDI quintile improved the most from 1990 to 2015, but also has the most complicated causal profile. Maternal mortality in the highest SDI quintile is mostly due to other direct maternal disorders, indirect maternal disorders, and abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and/or miscarriage. Historical patterns suggest achievement of SDG 3.1 will require 91% coverage of one antenatal care visit, 78% of four antenatal care visits, 81% of in-facility delivery, and 87% of skilled birth attendance.
INTERPRETATION: Several challenges to improving reproductive health lie ahead in the SDG era. Countries should establish or renew systems for collection and timely dissemination of health data; expand coverage and improve quality of family planning services, including access to contraception and safe abortion to address high adolescent fertility; invest in improving health system capacity, including coverage of routine reproductive health care and of more advanced obstetric care-including EmOC; adapt health systems and data collection systems to monitor and reverse the increase in indirect, other direct, and late maternal deaths, especially in high SDI locations; and examine their own performance with respect to their SDI level, using that information to formulate strategies to improve performance and ensure optimum reproductive health of their population.
Genetic composition and connectivity of the West Indian Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Panama. Edgardo Díaz-Ferguson, Hector M. Guzmán, Margaret Hunter.
Journal of Aquatic Mammals (In Press - 2016). Abstract Genetic diversity and haplotype composition of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) population from the San San Pond Sak (SSPS) wetland in Bocas del Toro, Panama was studied using a segment of mitochondrial DNA (D’loop). No genetic information to date has been published for manatee populations in Panama. Due to their secretive behavior and small population size of the species in the area, DNA extraction was conducted from opportunistically collected fecal (N=20), carcass soft tissue (N=4) and bone (N=4) samples. However, after DNA processing only 10 samples provided enough quality DNA for sequencing (3 fecal, 4 tissue and 3 bone samples). We identified three haplotypes in total; two of these haplotypes are reported for the first time, J02 (N=3) and J03 (N=4), and one J01 had been previously published (N=3). Genetic diversity showed similar values to previous studies conducted in other Caribbean regions with moderate values of nucleotide (π= 0.00152) and haplotipic (Hd= 0.57) diversity. Connectivity assessment was based on sequence similarity, genetic distance and genetic differentiation between the SSPS population with other previously published manatee populations. The J01 haplotype identified in the Panamanian population is shared with populations in the Caribbean mainland and the Gulf of Mexico indicating reduced differentiation corroborated with an Fst (0.0094) between SSPS and this region. In contrast, comparisons between Panama sequences and populations in the Eastern Caribbean (South American populations) and North Western Caribbean showed fewer similarities (Fst =0.049 and 0.058, respectively). These results corroborate previous phylogeographic patterns already established for manatee populations and situate Panamanian populations with the Belize/Mexico cluster. In addition, these findings will be a baseline for comparative studies of manatees in other areas of Panama and Central America. These results can assist with management decisions regarding conservation of genetic diversity, future introductions, connectivity and effective population size of manatees along the Central American corridor.
Blood based biomarkers of adverse perinatal outcomes in maternal obesity. Tania T. Herrera, Jillian L. Garcia, Gabrielle B. Britton.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine (In Press - 2016). Abstract Objective: Increasing maternal weight has been shown to predict adverse perinatal outcome, including increases in the relative risk of fetal death, stillbirth, neonatal death, perinatal death and infant death. In order to better understand the pathophysiological factors associated with obesity during pregnancy, the role of biomarkers associated with adverse outcomes in obese pregnant women is under investigation. The purpose of this review study was to examine potential biomarkers that could serve as effective screening strategies in obese pregnant women to reduce fetal and neonatal morbidity, as well as maternal morbidity. Methods: Electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase) were searched for previously published research studies that investigated biomarkers associated with perinatal outcomes in obese pregnant women and the putative mechanisms underlying biomarker effects on pregnancy outcomes. Results: It is evident that while several biomarkers predict perinatal complications in obese pregnant women, none fulfill the criteria to be considered clinically useful. Conclusion: There is a critical need for reliable blood-based biomarkers associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in obese pregnant women.
EDICIÓN ACTUAL SUSCRÍBETE
3ra Edición 2016
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